24 Jul 2017
The rewriting PR hasn’t been merged yet. At the beginning of last week, there was still some work to be done on it. For example, the
check_confluence() method (which, unsurprisingly, checks if the system is confluent) would add new rewriting rules while it runs - definitely not something it should do. Another addition, suggested by my mentor, was the attribute
_max_exceeded: this is
True when the Knuth-Bendix completion method has already been attempted but the maximum number of rules allowed to be added to the system was exceeded. Trying again would be a waste of time. However, if the maximum number of rules is increased,
_max_exceeded is reset so that the completion method could be run again.
Then I worked on the multi-step version of the presentation algorithm (which was possible because the homomorphism PR was merged by then). Once I wrote it up, made sure it worked and started testing against the single step one, I noticed that the multi-step version ran several times as fast for several of the groups I was using and yet was suddenly much slower for a group of higher order. This was unexpected and I spent a while trying to work out why that would be. The reason was this: the function uses
coset_enumeration_c for filling in a certain coset table.
coset_enumeration_c stores the deductions it makes while filling in so that it can process them later. However, if there are too many deductions, it’s not practical to go through all of them so the algorithm uses the method
look_ahead that allows it to continue without looking at the deduction stack which is emptied. The critical size of the deduction stack was 500 by default. For large groups, the single step version would greatly exceed that most of the time so
look_ahead was run instead, speeding it up considerably, while the multi step version would be working with a smaller coset table and the number of deductions would be large but not over 500 which made it slow. So it looked like processing close to 500 deductions was inefficient and I reduced the number to 100 to see what happens. What happened was that both version got faster but now the multi-step version was consistently faster than the single-step one. I ran the coset table tests and they seemed to be fine too so the reduction in the maximum number of deductions didn’t seem to affect anything negatively. I pushed the multi step version into the presentation PR but that hasn’t started being reviewed because another problem came up.
The homomorphisms tests from the merged PR would occasionally time out so that needed investigating. Turned out it was because the
__contains__ method of the
FpSubgroup class couldn’t handle group elements in the conjugate form, i.e. something of the form
r**-1*w*r for some words
r, w. It would get into an infinite loop and the tests would only occasionally time out because the method is used during kernel computation which is randomised. So a couple of days was spent thinking about what would be the best way to eliminate the problem, whether this sort of problem would only be caused by conjugate elements and finally expanding the code accordingly. You can follow what I did in this PR. Though this is still being discussed and it’s unclear whether some other solution would be called for.
So because of all this, I couldn’t work on the other homomorphism cases (though I did sketch some things that I can use once the dependent PRs are merged). If the
FpSubgroup issue is resolved soon and the rewriting PR is merged, I will implement homomorphisms to
FpGroups. The presentation PR will probably need more reviewing and I can’t implement
PermutationGroup domains without it. I’m considering looking into an alternative method of doing homomorphisms specifically for the
PermutationGroup case because I’ve seen a section on it in the Handbook. Or I could start working on Sylow subgroups which is another things I was thinking of doing. These things shouldn’t depend on any of the unmerged PRs so it would be a good use of time.
17 Jul 2017
The work on finding finite presentations of permutation groups was somewhat delayed last week because I’ve come across a bug in the
reidemester_presentation code while testing the one step version of the presetation algorithm (which is essentially finished). Turned out it was caused by an unnecessary cyclic reduction on one line in the main elimination technique. See PR for the explanation.
Another delay was because I realised that for the multi-step version, it would be useful to have the homomorphism PR merged. Mostly this is because of the
generator_product method from the
PermutationGroup class - this takes an arbitrary permutation in the group and returns a list of the strong generators such that the product of the elements of the list is equal to this permutation. But the homomorphism functionality that’s already there (the case of the homomorphism from an
FpGroup to a
PermutationGroup) would be helpful too. So I switched by attention to getting that PR ready for merging.
So this week I’ll try to add the multistep version and will also start implementing homomorphisms from
PermutationGroups and to
FpGroups, as outlined in the plan. Also, at some point when the rewriting PR is merged, I could try out the potentially improved random element generator for
FpGroups that I sketched a couple of weeks ago. This is not officially part of the plan and not in any way urgent, but could probably give better random elements which would be useful for the
order() method and the kernel calculation for homomorphisms. Though I might not actually get around to it this week.
10 Jul 2017
I sent the PR with the rewriting system implementation on Wednesday night, i.e. by Thursday as planned. It could have been earlier if I hadn’t spent one day experimenting with making the elements of
FpGroup different from the underlying
FreeGroup. At the moment they are the same so that, for instance:
>>> F, a, b = free_group('a, b')
>>> G = FpGroup(F, [a**2, a*b*a**-1*b**-1])
>>> a in F
>>> a in G
G are different groups (not even isomorphic), it would make sense for their elements to be represented by different objects, e.g. the generators for
G could be
a_1, b_1 so that
F are connected by the injective homomorphism sending
b respectively. Though, for convenience, it could be allowed to refer to the elements of an
FpGroup by the names of the underlying free group elements (and performing the conversion to
b_1 backstage before passing them onto
Now, if this were done, it would be possible to check for equality of two elements of
FpGroup using the
== syntax. E.g., if the generators of
G were made distinct from
a, b and called
a_1, b_1, then we could have
a_1*b_1 == b_1*a_1 (while, of course,
a*b == b*a is not true because
b are the elements of a
FreeGroup). The latter was the main motivation for trying this out but in the end, after additionally discussing things with my mentor, I left everything as it is and implemented a couple new
FpGroup methods instead. So, for example, to check if
b*a are equal in
G, one would call
G.equals(a*b, b*a). The PR has more details.
At the moment I’m in the middle of writing the function for finding finite presentations of permutation groups. I’m slightly modifying the coset enumeration code to allow it to return an incomplete
CosetTable (instead of raising a
ValueError if, say, the maximum number of cosets is exceeded) and to start running with a partially filled table (which could be passed as a keyword argument) rather than with a new, empty instance. This is necessary as finding the presentation requires setting some of the coset table entries manually and adding relators to the future presentation while examining the undefined table entries, after which coset enumeration could be used to make more deductions. Messing with coset enumeration is the only complicated part (as far as I can see): the rest is pretty much sorted by now. I suppose, the only other thing is deciding when to find the presentation in one step and when to use the multi-step version (finding the presentation of a subgroup first and then the whole presentation based on that). The latter can be more efficient for larger groups. But I could think about that later, maybe run some tests, once the coset enumeration is set up properly.
02 Jul 2017
At the beginning of this week I finished writing the first draft of the homomorphism class, at least as much of it as is possible without the rewriting systems for
FpGroups. Homomorphisms from
PermutationGroups are fully implemented though I’m sure corrections will be made as the PR is reviewed. I mentioned that I wasn’t planning on sending the PR until after the rewriting systems but there is quite a bit there and a lot of it can be reviewed (and even merged) now.
It took a bit longer than I expected because the rewriting for permutation groups wasn’t quite what was necessary for homomorphisms. I knew that there was a function returning the unique normal form of a permutation in the group (the
coset_factor() method) and had assumed that that would be enough but the normal form wasn’t in terms of the generators, nor was there an easy way to rewrite it in terms of the generators. So I had to modify the
schreier_sims() method that finds the strong generating set and the elements that make up the normal form returned by
coset_factor() to keep track of which generators in what order are multiplied to obtain them. Then I wrote a method that would write any permutation in the group as a product of the strong generators and, since I had the information about the make-up of the strong generators, this could easily be rewritten in terms of the original generators. Doing this was a bit fiddly and took a while. Though I suppose it could be counted as part of the work on rewriting systems.
The rewriting systems for
FpGroups are coming along. At the moment, it is a new class
FpGroups will probably have an attribute for. I’ve almost finished implementing the Knuth-Bendix completion algorithm and that was most of the work. Though there is also the matter of reduction. At the moment I’m using the
eliminate_words() method from the
FreeGroupElement class - it takes a dictionary of substitutions (in this case a dictionary of reduction rules) and substitutes all of them into a given word, if possible. But that isn’t very efficient for long words and large reduction dictionaries since
eliminate_words() will scan the word from the start every time it tries to perform a new substitution. The approach I’ve seen described in papers on rewriting systems is to construct a finite automaton to perform the reduction and modify it every time a new rule is added. This would somewhat increase the time taken to initiate the system and to make it confluent but would also make word reductions much quicker. However, it could also take a while to actually implement. I’m unsure if it’s worth doing it now - perhaps, I could add it later, when the rest of my project is done.
Anyway, I was going to use this post to outline a schedule for this month’s work, like I did in the first post. Looking back at the Timeline I sketched in my proposal, I seem to have given myself 2 weeks for implementing the rewriting systems. This estimate wasn’t unreasonable, considering the unexpected matter of rewriting in permutation groups I had to deal with in the first half of the week and the reading I had to do to get a better idea of Knuth-Bendix. But if I don’t implement finite automatons for reductions right now, I think I should be able to send the rewriting PR by Thursday (probably earlier). With this in mind, my plan for the month is roughly as follows.
The Plan (continued)
- 3 July - 6 July: finish the
- 6 July - 16 July: implement finite presentations for
PermutationGroups (this should be plenty of time considering that I made a start on this during the application period)
- 17 July - 23 July: complete the homomorphism implementation to allow homomorphisms from
PermutationGroups and to
FpGroups. Implement the permutation presentation for finite
- 24 July - 30 July: Set up the use of
PermutationGroup methods for
FpGroups via homomorphisms.
So by the end of the month, the homomorphism functionality should be complete, so should be the switching between
PermutationGroup presentations (where it is possible, i.e. finite
PermutationGroup methods work for
FpGroups properly could take more time but if everything goes more or less according to plan, I should have most of August to try and implement Sylow subgroups for
PermutationGroups (there is a chapter on it in “The Handbook of Computational Group Theory”), look into the construction of finite automatons for word reduction or automatically grouping subwords of group words, like
(a*b)**2 instead of
a*b*a*b, or anything else project-related really. That’s the optimistic scenario of course, provided no sudden terrible complications arise which can never be guaranteed.
25 Jun 2017
At the beginning of the week, all of my previous PRs got merged. This is good. Also, the homomorphism class is now mostly written with the exception of the kernel computation. The kernel is the only tricky bit. I don’t think there is any general method of computing it, but there is a way for finite groups. Suppose we have a homomorphism
phi from a finite group
g is an element of
phi.invert(h) returns an element of the preimage of
g*phi.invert(phi(g))**-1 is an element of the kernel (note that this is not necessarily the identity as the preimage of
phi(g) can contain other elements beside
g). With this in mind, we could start by defining
K to be the trivial subgroup of
K.order()*phi.image().order() == G.order(), then we are done. If not, generate some random elements until
g*phi.invert(phi(g))**-1 is not the identity, and redefine
K to be the subgroup generated by
g*phi.invert(phi(g))**-1. Continue adding generators like this until
K.order()*phi.image().order() == G.order() or finite
G this will always terminate (or rather almost always considering that the elements are generated randomly - though it would only not terminate if at least one of the elements of
G is never generated which is practically impossible).
This is how I am going to implement it. I haven’t already because I’ve been thinking about some of the details of the implementation. One thing that could be problematic is multiple calls to
reidemeister_presentation() to compute the presentation of
K at each step. As I’ve discovered when I was implementing the search for finite index subgroups last week, this can be very inefficient if the index of
K is large (which it could well be for a small number of generators at the start). After giving it some thought, I realised that actually we could completely avoid finding the presentation because
K’s coset table would be enough to calculate the order and check if an element belongs to it. Assuming
G is finite,
K.order() can be calculated as the order of
G divided by the length of the coset table so the knowledge of the generators is enough. And for membership testing, all that’s necessary is to check if a given element stabilises
K with the respect to the action on the cosets described by the coset table. And that should be a huge improvement over the obvious calls to the
FpGroups doesn’t currently have a
__contains__() method so one can’t check if a word
w is in a group
w in G. This is easy to correct. What I was wondering was if we wanted to be able to check if words over
G belong to a subgroup of
G created with the
subgroup() method - that wouldn’t be possible directly because
subgroup() returns a group on a different set of generators but it wouldn’t be too unreasonable to have SymPy do this:
>>> F, a, b = free_group('a, b')
>>> G = FpGroup(F, [a**3, b**2, (a*b)**2])
>>> K = G.subgroup([a])
>>> a**2 in K
I asked Kalevi about it earlier today and they said that it would be preferable to treat
K in this case as a different group that happens to be linked to
G through an injective homomorphism (essentially the canonical inclusion map). If we call this homomorphism
phi, then the user can check if an element of
G belongs to the subgroup represented by
K like so:
a**2 in phi.image(). Here
phi.image() wouldn’t be an instance of
FpGroup but rather of a new class
FpSubgroup that I wrote today - it is a way to represent a subgroup of a group while keeping the same generators as in the original group. It’s only attributes are
parent (the original group) and
C (the coset table of the original group by the subgroup) and it has a
order() and a
to_FpGroup() methods (the names are self-explanatory). For finite parent groups, the order is calculated as I described above for the kernel and for the infinite ones
redeimeister_presentation() has to be called. The injective homomorphism from an instance of
FpGroup returned by
subgroup() would need to be worked out during the running of
reidemeister_presentation() when the schreier generators are defined - this is still to be done.
Another thing I implemented this week was an improved method for generating random elements of finitely presented groups. However, when I tried it out to see how random the elements looked, I got huge words even for small groups so I didn’t send a PR with it yet. Once I implement rewriting systems, these words could be reduced to much shorter ones. Speaking of rewriting systems, I think it could be good if the rewriting was applied automatically much like
x*x**-1 is removed for
FreeGroupElements. Though I suppose this could be too inefficient some times - this would need testing. This is what I’ll be working on this week.